Because watching the movie is usually easier than reading the book, this page features videos designed to sharpen
your condom savvy on everything from basic condom how-to’s, to how condoms are made, to condom history. You’ll
find it’s as simple as using “condom sense”.
- A How-to Guide For “Getting It On”
It might seem like condom sense, but mistakes can be made – especially in the heat of the moment. To get the protection you need from a condom, know exactly how to “get it on” before you get it on. The how-to video below gives you all the do’s and don’ts in about three minutes.
- How Latex Condoms Are Made
Sexual health is serious business and manufacturers take condom production very seriously. But why does it matter how they’re made? So you can see first-hand the creation and testing that goes into making each and every condom safe and effective for you.
- A History Of Condoms
They’ve been around for thousands of years, dating back to ancient Egypt. See where condoms started and you’ll appreciate how far they have come. One more reason to never go without one.
Narrated by a charismatic, young host, and produced in the vein of UNWRAPPED, the Trojan Unrolled Factory Tour is an informational, exclusive inside look at what goes into the creation and testing of a TROJAN. The host will appear in a laboratory education office (staged), surrounded by Trojan products, glass condom molds, renderings of the glass tubes, scientific data regarding the quality control and testing procedures, checklists, etc. Throughout the narration the host will guide the audience through the condom production and testing process. Visually, the video will look and feel like a virtual tour of a high end hotel or club. SteadiCam shooting and close up slow motion footage will be used. After viewing the factory, the production team will implement use of macro lenses, LED and Ring lighting, and close up tracking shots.
A young (mid-late 20s), attractive, intelligent and energetic male host (Carlo Romero)takes on the role of a lab teacher who describes what goes into the making, testing and innovation of a Trojan condom. The host will intro the topic in accessible, digestible language in a staged lab/educational setting (a set in NYC), featuring props such as condoms and/or glass molds as well as diagrams on a whiteboard or chalkboard.
1.) INTRO: 20 Seconds
The tour will begin with a host intro. Here, the host gives an introduction of what we’re going to see and why.
HOST ON CAMERA: (NOTE: confirming we will retain the “tour guide” approach and not attempt to provide some rationale re: why our host is walking the audience through the Trojan factory)
Hello, and welcome to a tour of how condoms are made. Every day, more than one million condoms are produced at the Trojan condom manufacturing facility. These condoms are made in many shapes, styles, and sizes, and every single one of them is tested to ensure it meets the highest government and industry quality standards before it is packaged and shipped.
Condoms have come a long way over the years. With innovations in design, we now live in a time when couples actually want to use condoms to enhance their sexual experiences together. But condoms…no matter who manufactures them, which style, or how thin they are, remain FDA-regulated medical devices. That means there are government regulations to make sure your condom keeps you protected from unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections.
Want to know how Trojan does it? Come join me for a tour of our state-of-the-art American manufacturing facility, and I’ll show you how it happens.
2.) LATEX – The Run Down: 25 Seconds
If you ever wondered how they came to be called “rubbers”, it’s because most condoms are made from natural latex, a remarkably strong and flexible material that comes from rubber trees.
* Giant Wooden Trojan Sign (Throwback)
* Shining Tops tanks storing and mixing the latex and lubricant compounds
* Control panels controlling the tanks
* Close-Ups of Latex being mixed
* CenCom Meeting Room
* Safety BB from afar
3.) THE CREATION: 45 Seconds
This facility produces more than one million condoms per day. To get a sense of what that looks like, take a look at our manufacturing line, or “dipping” process, where we form hundreds of new latex condoms per minute.
HOST ON CAMERA:
Custom glass molds, like THESE [show glass mold set] are used to produce wide variety of condom types. …all designed to enhance a couple’s pleasure. These sure aren’t your grandfather’s condoms!
3,000 molds just like these are run on each side of the dipping line. The molds are dipped not only once, but twice to assure that a strong, thin film of latex is produced. A latex ring at the open end of the condom is formed to assure a secure fit; then the condoms are removed from their molds. The molds are washed and dried for another cycle of dipping.
The condoms are then washed in a solution that gives these condoms a silky, smooth feel. All aspects of the manufacturing process are closely monitored and controlled to assure the condoms are consistently made to deliver a satisfying experience every time.
*Show the selection of glass tubes followed by the variety of different products they will eventually create. (Glass Tubes will be lit and filmed over a mini cyclorama on site)
*Glass Tubes enter Dip Tanks (1 and 2)
*Ribs created at the end of each condom
*Latex is heated and dried around the tubes
*Condoms are rolled off of the tubes
*Glass tubes are cleaned (dipped in Water)
*Condoms Transported in the bins
*Washing/Drying Close Ups
4.) TESTING/WRAPPING: 30 Seconds
Each and every condom is electronically tested and properly sorted prior to packaging. To do this, the condom is loaded over a stainless steel shaft—or as we call it, a mandrel—and the test pad is electrified. If a circuit is completed, there is a defect in the condom and it doesn’t make the grade. If the circuit is not completed, we have a perfect condom—an impermeable barrier to sperm and STI pathogens.
HERE, the condoms are placed in their final protective wrapper.
THESE machines both electronically test, and then wrap each condom. As the condoms are wrapped, they are simultaneously injected with a lubricant to maximize performance, protection, and pleasure. Two opposing foil webs are heat-sealed together, forming the package. The package materials – which are carefully selected to meet stringent quality standards—are custom designed to protect the condoms and keep them safe.
(NOTE: I like this, but I think we can cut it to reduce time.)
SINGULAR TESTING FACILITY (AREA A)
*Electronic Testing for Holes machine (Close-Ups Only)
*White gloves hand place Magnums into machine – leading them to foiler/lubricators
COMBO TESTING ANG FOILING (AREA B)
*Combo Machines (Testing/Foiling)
*The condoms are sucked up into the tester, tested, then simultaneously lubricated and foiled
*Circular SteadiCam Shots of the daily meeting
*Trojan Branding Shots
5.) QUALITY CONTROL: 1 Minute
HOST ON CAMERA:
Now you know how stringently condoms are tested during manufacture, but you may be surprised to learn about the lengths we go to ensure that quality. Before these condoms get to the consumer, they are rigorously tested right here inside our lab. Let’s take a look!
This batch here is being opened from the foil and tested. One of the most remarkable tests is the air inflation test, where the condoms are inflated to test for elasticity and strength. These condoms here typically can handle being inflated at 25 liters of air per minute – that’s greater than the amount of air it would take to inflate a basketball! [Cut to a giant inflated condom, do not show bursting] We also make sure that the condoms are free from defects by filling them with water. These condoms are then vigorously worked by strong hands in what’s called the “roll and knead” process. This next test here, which we call the tensile test, stretches out the width of the condom to see how far it can enlarge and how strong it is. Most condoms stretch to over 750% of their original width.
Finally, let’s take a look at the chemical lab. Here, the condoms are tested extensively by our in-house scientists. This is the plate test, where we check for consistent uniformity of the latex film. And this is the HPLC machine, where we make sure the lubricant meets quality standards. Although almost all condoms are used in less than 1 year from the manufacturing date, they are tested to have a 5 year shelf life!
*Condoms are opened from foiled packages to be tested
*Air Inflation Test (Air fills to 2-3 times the required pressure)
*Freedom from Holes Test 1 (Filled with Water)
*Freedom from Holes Test 2 (Roll and Knead)
*Tensile Test (Stretch at 750% Elongation)
*Lab Testing (Products are chemically tested), including:
6.) PACKAGING / DISTRIBUTION: 30 Seconds
Once the condoms are tested, they’re packaged (SHORT CLIP OF PACKAGING MACHINES)and then, millions of condoms are shipped worldwide every day (SHORT CLIPE OF WAREHOUSE/TRUCK).
7.) OUTRO: 20 Seconds
HOST ON CAMERA:
So now you know how condoms are made and just how rigorously they’re tested. It’s pretty cool to know you’re getting such a safe, effective and quality product, right? So the next time you open a condom, you have more reasons to appreciate it than ever before.
Thanks for taking a look inside.
Condom history video script: themes, framework and questions
Condom evolution and innovation throughout history
Evolution of condom communications throughout history; key developments
Impact of condom on culture/politics/science and vice versa
INTRODUCTION: General history
What is the role of innovation in the history of the condom? (ASK ALL)
Throughout history, people have used everything from seaweed to sheep intestines to rubber in order to prevent pregnancy. As new materials were introduced, people invariably made condoms out of them.
VISUALS: Image montage (To create in post) + introduce animation transitions (throughout)
What has been the impact of condom on culture/politics/science and vice versa? (ASK ALL)
Individuals to share their perspectives
Taking an overarching view, how would you describe the history of the condom? (ASK ALL)
Controversial, taboo, often met with opposition, politically sensitive
From at least the 18th century, condom use was opposed in some legal, religious, and medical circles for essentially the same reasons that are given today:
Reduce chance of pregnancy, thought of as immoral or undesirable
Belief in their protective powers was thought to encourage sexual promiscuity;
Not used consistently due to inconvenience, expense, or loss of sensation.
VISUALS: image montage + on-camera
How has the way people talk about condoms changed today? How has it stayed the same? (ASK ALL)
Still conflicted, charged, politicized, but now moving towards open dialogue, holistic view of sexual health; focus on pleasure
Despite historical opposition, how would you describe the growth of the condom market over the past 100-200 years? (ASK ALL)
Grew rapidly; innovation was rapid
At what point did access to condoms become a more prevalent issue of concern to the general public? When did condom communications begin? (LYNN, JIM, DEBBY)
Health crisis of Europe in 16th century underground condom trade in US and Europe
Keeping our soldiers protected at time of war (i.e. American Civil War, WWI)
What has been the general trend in sexual health communications from 200 years ago to the present? (LYNN, DEBBY)
Abstinence-only education has been the clear message in sexual health education throughout history
Condoms have been highlighted for their protective qualities – as the only contraceptive method that protects against both unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections
Yet, as condom companies like Trojan continue to innovate for pleasure, we’re seeing them communicated as a means to better sex
Early history of the condom (Ancient civilization to 18th Century)
Where did the word “condom” come from? (JIM, SARAH, DEBBY)
Word first appears in early 18th century, though the etymology unknown. In popular tradition, the invention/naming of the condom came to be attributed to an associate of England's King Charles II, one "Earl of Condom"—though there is no evidence of this; condoms had been used for over 100 years before King Charles II.
A variety of unproven Latin etymologies have been proposed, including condon (receptacle), condamina (house), and cumdum (scabbard or case). It has also been speculated to be from the Italian word guantone, derived from guanto, or “glove”
VISUALS: on-camera + TBD images
When did condom history begin? When and what is the earliest recorded use of a condom? (SARAH, JIM, DEBBY)
One of the oldest inventions known to modern man is also one of the most consistently innovative. In fact the oldest claimed representation of condom use is a painting in the French cave Grotte des Combarrelles dating 12,000–15,000 years old.
Ancient Egypt, Greece, or India—penile sheaths, garments, and decorations appeared in the art and literature of various ancient civilizations such as Egypt.
VISUALS: Stock (public domain): Egyptians (see Trojan VHS tapes for kinds of imagery used; pull from public domain stock); see also “3000 BC” here: http://www.theoriginalcondom.com/en/the-condom-history/
How did innovation play a role even in early condom history? (SARAH, JIM, DEBBY)
Ancient Egypt (as above)
Some use of glans condoms (devices covering only the head of the penis) is recorded in Asia. Glans condoms seem to have been used for birth control, and to have been known only by members of the upper classes. In China, glans condoms may have been made of oiled silk paper, or of lamb intestines. In Japan, they were made of tortoise shell or animal horn.
Europe – linen sheets, fish-bladders, animal intestines, oiled paper, tortoise shell
In addition to linen, condoms during the Renaissance were made out of intestines and bladder. Cleaned and prepared intestine for use in glove making had been sold commercially since at least the 13th century.
Condoms made from bladder and dating to the 1640s were discovered in an English privy; it is believed they were used by soldiers of King Charles I on each other.
Dutch traders introduced condoms made from "fine leather" to Japan. Unlike the horn condoms used previously, these leather condoms covered the entire penis.
VISUALS: Stock (public domain): Renaissance/Baroque imagery of men and women
When did condoms come into popular use in Europe? What was the single greatest motivating factor? (SARAH, DEBBY, JIM)
VISUALS: Stock (public domain): Renaissance painting showing weeping/gnashing of teeth (Sistine Chapel? Similar?);
What was the impact of syphilis on the European community? What evidence exists? (SARAH, DEBBY)
Profound impact: The first well-documented outbreak of what is now known as syphilis occurred in 1494 among French troops. The disease then swept across Europe. By 1505, the disease had spread to Asia, and within a few decades had decimated large areas of China.
No medical work printed in 16th century did not refer to syphilis or its treatment
VISUALS: Stock (public domain): Gabriele Falloppio treatise De Morbo Gallico of 1564 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ad/De_Morbo_Gallico.jpg
What might a 16th century condom look like? What was a sheath? How did it work? Who claimed to have invented them? (SARAH)
Use from ancient Egypt to Renaissance—linen and tied with ribbon
In 16th century Italy, Gabriele Falloppio authored the earliest description of condom use. De Morbo Gallico ("The French Disease", referring to syphilis) was published in 1564, which recommended use of a device he claimed to have invented: linen sheaths soaked in a chemical solution and allowed to dry before use. The cloths he described were sized to cover the glans of the penis, and were held on with a ribbon. Fallopio claimed to have performed an experimental trial of the linen sheath on 1100 men, and reported that none of them had contracted the dreaded disease.
VISUALS: No archival imagery as of 9/10- still checking (Science Museum)
VISUALS: Stock image of Falloppio (reference here under 1561: http://www.theoriginalcondom.com/en/the-condom-history/)
Can you talk a bit about condoms in European cultural life? Literature, art, lore? (SARAH, DEBBY)
Shakespeare references to condoms (“you sheath”, “Venus’ glove”)
English poet laureate Nicholas Rowe, poking fun at 18th century Londoners
Casanova— most poetic reference to condoms - poetry exchange with his lover (a nun!)
Casanova art—party trick engraving
VISUALS: Stock—Shakespeare image (web); others TBD
How were condoms received at the time (SARAH, JIM)?
The condom market grew rapidly in the 18th century, available in a variety of qualities and sizes, made from either linen treated with chemicals, or "skin" (bladder or intestine softened by treatment with sulphur and lye). They were sold at pubs, barbershops, chemist shops, open-air markets, and at the theater throughout Europe and Russia.
The first recorded inspection of condom quality is found in the memoirs of Giacomo Casanova (which cover his life until 1774): to test for holes, he would often blow them up before use.
VISUALS: Casanova blowing up condom at a party (GETTY image)
That said, the condom started to see its first opposition in 1708, when John Campbell asked Parliament (unsuccessfully) to make the devices illegal. Noted English physician Daniel Turner condemned the condom, publishing his arguments against their use in 1717. He disliked condoms because they did not offer full protection against syphilis. He also seems to have argued that belief in the protection condoms offered encouraged men to engage sex with unsafe partners. Physicians later in the 18th century also spoke against the condom, but not on medical grounds: rather, they expressed the belief that contraception was immoral.
Who was using condoms back then?
Up to the 19th century, condoms were generally used only by the middle and upper classes. One reason for the lack of condom use was that the working classes tended to lack education on the dangers of sexually transmitted infections. Perhaps more importantly, condoms were unaffordable for many.
How and when did animal skins first come into use? When did they become more common? (SARAH, DEBBY, JIM)
In the early 18th century, when slaughterhouses discarded an abundance of animal organs, butchers made extra money by repurposing intestines as preventive sheaths, making them the first widely sold contraceptive product. Since the livestock industry was much larger in Europe, most of these “skins,” as they were called, had to be imported from England or France.
VISUALS: Kinsey animal condom (18th c); Dittrick animal condoms (18th c)
How were animal skin condoms used? (SARAH, DEBBY, JIM)
Blown up before putting on
VISUALS: 19th century engraving of woman blowing up condom (Kinsey)
VISUALS: Casanova engraving (repeat—different pan)
How were condoms regarded in public opinion by the 1800s? In writings, law, etc? (SARAH, DEBBY, JIM, LYNN)
By the 1800s, extremely popular both for birth control and STD prevention;
The early 19th century saw contraceptives promoted to the poorer classes for the first time.
Writers advocated for other methods of birth control (esp. feminist writers, who disapproved of male-controlled methods such as the condom); many cited expense of condoms and unreliability (riddled with holes, and often fell off or broke), but saw condoms as a good option for some, and as the only contraceptive that also protected from disease.
However, laws discouraged manufacture and promotion of condoms
Despite restrictions, condoms were promoted by traveling lecturers and in newspaper advertisements, using euphemisms in places where such ads were illegal. Instructions on how to make condoms at home were distributed in the United States and Europe.
VISUALS: on-camera + Civil War era pamphlets (check with Laura Travis at Dittrick)
How and when did rubber revolutionize the condom industry? (SARAH, DEBBY, JIM)
The rubber vulcanization process was invented by Charles Goodyear in 1839, and patented in 1844. The first rubber condom was produced in 1855, and by the late 1850s several major rubber companies were mass producing, among other items, rubber condoms. VISUALS: Stock (public domain): Charles Goodyear painting/photo
How were these early rubbers made? Where were they sold and were they used? How did their design evolve? (SARAH, DEBBY, JIM)
Thick, rough seam on edges; used several times; required that owner soak them and prepare with Vaseline or talcum powder; unpleasant and rough to use
A main advantage of rubber condoms was their reusability, making them a more economical choice in the long term. Compared to the 19th century rubber condoms, however, skin condoms were initially cheaper and offered better sensitivity. For these reasons, skin condoms remained more popular than the rubber variety. However, by the end of the 19th century "rubber" had become a euphemism for condoms in countries around the world
For many decades, rubber condoms were manufactured by wrapping strips of raw rubber around penis-shaped molds, then dipping the wrapped molds in a chemical solution to cure the rubber. The earliest rubber condoms covered only the glans of the penis; a doctor had to measure each man and order the correct size
Rubber manufacturers quickly discovered they could sell more devices by manufacturing full-length one-size-fits-all condoms to be sold in pharmacies.
Expensive and illegally sold on black market
Evolved in length, texture and thickness;
VISUALS: Museum of Science rubber condom image (Followed up on request 9/10)
Besides the rubber condom, were there any other condom-like options available in the early 19th century? (SARAH, JIM, DEBBY)
Capote: small rubber condoms covering only the tip/glans were often used in England and the United States; more risk of losing them; if rubber ring was too tight, it would constrict the penis.
VISUALS: Capote ads from Dittrick Museum
How did the capote get its name? (SARAH)
Called "capote" (French for condom), perhaps because of its resemblance to a woman's bonnet worn at that time, also called a capote.
VISUALS (public domain)—stock image of woman’s bonnet in 18th c: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bonnet_(headgear)
What were French letters?
19th c English term for condom
VISUALS: French letters document (Museum of Sex)
How did people buy condoms in America before the civil war? How much did they cost? When did a condom trade really take off? (SARAH, DEBBY, JIM)
Before 1840, expensive (costing a dollar when weeks pay was 14 dollars/week)
From black market before 1840-> lively mail order trade by Civil War
By 1870, condoms were openly sold: they were available at drug suppliers, doctors, pharmacies, dry-goods retailers and mail order houses
VISUALS: NEED- Sarah?
How did people talk about condoms in the 19th century? (SARAH, DEBBY, LYNN)
Victorian era: moral investigation of vice (gambling, drugs, sex) as well as poor hygiene and disease and condoms were associated with vice.
Because of association with syphilis, people often associated condoms with venereal disease and prostitution
VISUALS: on camera + TBD images
What was the Great Social Evil as determined in the 19th century? (SARAH, DEBBY, JIM, LYNN)
Prostitution and VD; prostitutes were scapegoats for STDs
This carried on, historically, for a long time
VISUALS: 19th century “Harem guide” (1856), Museum of Sex
How did condom communications evolve in America versus the rest of the world? (SARAH, LYNN, DEBBY, JIM)
In Europe and Russia from 18th century on: condoms were sold at pubs, barbershops, chemist shops, open-air markets, and at the theater. They later spread to America, although in every place there were generally used only by the middle and upper classes, due to both expense and lack of sex education.
Early WWI, condom use enforced by all militaries except US and UK
VISUALS: on camera only
What was the Comstock Act, how did it come about and how did it impact the way condoms were traded and spoken about? (JIM, SARAH, DEBBY)
Anthony Comstock, reformer/anti-obscenity crusader and head of NY Society for the Suppression of Vice; he felt that condoms were a license to excess
Comstock Laws of 1873 amended the Post Office Act and made it illegal to send any "obscene, lewd, and/or lascivious" materials through the mail, including contraceptive devices and information.
Ostensibly aimed at commercialized vice (obscene literature and pornography)
VISUALS: 19th century “Harem guide” (1856), Museum of Sex, different pan
Distribution of condoms in the United States was limited by passage of the Comstock laws, which included a federal act banning the mailing of contraceptive information (passed in 1873) as well as State laws that banned the manufacture and sale of condoms in thirty states (misdemeanor, 6 month prison sentence)
Comstock devastated burgeoning condom industry—people already not speaking overtly about sexuality and now
How did condom makers get creative with their packaging after the Comstock act? (JIM, SARAH, DEBBY)
Despite legal obstacles, condoms continued to be readily available in both Europe and America, widely advertised under euphemisms such as male shield and rubber good. In late 19th century England, condoms were known as "a little something for the weekend".
Early condom tins only subtly convey their product,
VISUALS: Condom silver tins (Dittrick, Museum of Sex)
How did these laws and other societal milestones impact the US? (JIM, SARAH, DEBBY)
Beginning in the second half of the 19th century, American rates of sexually transmitted diseases skyrocketed. Causes cited by historians include effects of the American Civil War, and the ignorance of prevention methods promoted by the Comstock laws.
To fight the growing epidemic, sexual education classes were introduced to public schools for the first time, teaching about venereal diseases and how they were transmitted.
Early 20th century
What was the Crane ruling of 1918 and what was its impact? (JIM, SARAH, DEBBY)
Meant you could sell and distribute condoms for disease prevention (not birth control), which lead to a proliferation of companies
Doctors could legally prescribe condoms and druggists dispensed them, for disease prevention only; skirted issue of contraception
VISUALS: on camera + condom tin detail—prescribed by druggists, etc (Museum of Sex, Dittric)
Who was Julius Schmid? When was he working? What was his impact on the condom industry? (JIM, SARAH, DEBBY)
Immigrant, sausage maker—access to animal casings
In 1882, German immigrant Julius Schmidt founded one of the largest and longest-lasting condom businesses, Julius Schmid, Inc. This New York business initially manufactured only skin condoms.
Selling condoms out of his apartment (illegal and profitable) -> founding several major condom companies (Sheik, Ramses, Fourex)
Comstock was personally responsible for his arrest
VISUALS: Schmid name on early condom tins (Condom tins, all sources- MoS, Dittrick, Kinsey)
How were animal condoms made in the early 20th century? (SARAH)
Soak, alkaline, scrape, burn, blow up
How and when was latex first produced? Who was responsible for the mass production of latex condoms? What was the impact of latex on the condom industry? (SARAH, JIM, DEBBY)
1870s—first being processed; 1876 rubber plantations
VISUALS: 19th century latex plantation photo, reference here, under 1876: http://www.theoriginalcondom.com/en/the-condom-history/
Major advancement over crude rubber; Can be thin as human hair
Made by dipping glass and metal molds into liquid latex
Latex condom first invented in 1920s (Julius Fromm, see below)
VISUALS: quick shot of condom factory footage?
Who was Julius Fromm? (SARAH, JIM)
Julius Fromm—a Jewish German citizen developed a new, improved manufacturing technique for condoms: dipping glass molds into a raw rubber solution. Called cement dipping, this method required adding gasoline or benzene to the rubber to make it liquid. Using the new dipping method, French condom manufacturers were the first to add textures to condoms
By 1922, Fromm was mass producing latex condoms, dropping price, making condoms available to a much larger population
Fromm- slip of paper that said “please discreetly hand me a packet of Fromms” for next purchase)
VISUALS: Picture of Julius Fromm? (Stock/web) (reference here under 1920: http://www.theoriginalcondom.com/en/the-condom-history/)
VISUALS: TBD- ask Sarah/Lizzie
How long could the early latex condom last?
They were guaranteed for 5 years! (versus 3 for rubber condoms)
VISUALS: “Liquid Latex” condom box detail – “guaranteed 5 years” (Dittrick)
If you went to buy a condom in the early 20th century, where would you go? Who would go and how would they ask for them? (SARAH, JIM)
Mom and pop stores and increasingly pharmacies
VISUALS: Stock (mom and pop shop in late 19th to early 20th c)
VISUALS: Condom tins (all sources)
Why did smaller businesses come up in terms of condom sales in the early 20th? Why did they have an advantage in terms of selling condoms? (SARAH, JIM)
Up through 1920s, publicizing condom sales was off-limits for rubber-industry leaders, so individual entrepreneurs were able to make a dollar
Small businesses with diverse product lines could better hide from federal prosecution
This led to proliferation of mom and pop condom shops
VISUALS: early 20s condom tins (Museum of Sex)
What is the history of condoms in pharmacies? (SARAH, JIM, LYNN)
In mid 1920s, goal of putting condoms in pharmacies only
By 1940s?? it was the only place you could get them
VISUALS: TROJAN FOOTAGE OF 40s pharmacist (also use for Trojan-specific later)
What was condom advertising like in the late 19th and early 20th century? (JIM, DEBBY, LYNN)
Post 1873, condoms were sold in classified ads in medical, rubber and toilet goods section of dailies and weeklies
Rarely advertised as preventives but rather as “sheaths, skins, capotes or rubber goods”
VISUAL: Marriage/condom image from 50s (Museum of Sex)
VISUAL: Capote ads (Dittrick)
Talk about clinical language on early 20th century condom packages (DEBBY, JIM, LYNN)
Marketing required some decoding—they implied doctor endorsements
“scientifically tested on modern equipment for your protection”
“the perfect hygienic rubber product”
“a product of genuine latex sold for prevention of disease only”
VISUALS: 1930s condom packages (Kinsey, Museum of Sex), detail
How did language on condom packaging evolve to imply or explicitly refer to sexuality? (DEBBY, LYNN)
Cryptic language made people think about real function without saying it
Subtle hints in names, eg: Devil Skin, Shadows, Salome, Merry Widows (20s/30s)
VISUALS: 30s era condoms (Museum of Sex, Dittrick, Kinsey)
Testosterone-fueled virility – Spartans, Buffalos, stags, Pirates, Trojans, Romeos, Knights
VISUALS: 30s era condoms (Museum of Sex, Dittrick, Kinsey)
Can you talk about the anti-venereal disease campaign of the 30s and the impact it had? (LYNN, DEBBY)
Anti VD legislation
Led to support of condom industry and federal regulation
VISUALS: Trojan presentation images
Why was 1937 a significant year for the condom industry? (LYNN, DEBBY)
In 1937, condoms were officially labeled as a drug, to be distributed by pharmacists and regulated under the jurisdiction of the FDA
Result is that only condom makers who could comply with testing regulations (bigger names like Young’s Rubber and Julius Schmid) came to dominate US market
VISUALS: Trojan presentation images (to be scanned)
Who were the condom makers who emerged as a result of this regulation? (SARAH, JIM, MIKE)
The condom lines manufactured by Schmid, Shieks and Ramses, were sold through the late 1990s. Youngs Rubber Company, founded by Merle Youngs in late 19th century America, introduced Trojans.
VISUALS: Trojan presentation images (to be scanned)
Who was Young’s Rubber? What was their impact on the condom industry? (SARAH, JIM, MIKE)
Founded by Merle Yeland Young, eventually took Trojan name in 1916
Goal: to make high quality condoms and elevate condom industry from underground pursuit to legitimate enterprise
Young targeted drugstores as sole location in which condoms were sold
VISUALS: Trojan 50s pharmacy footage
What is Trojan’s history of condom innovation? (SARAH, MIKE)
Early 30s different kinds- “gold Trojan” “transparent Trojan”
VISUALS: Trojan presentation image
The transition from a focus on solely protection to pleasure AND protection
Can also be seen in pushing boundaries of condom advertising/marketing: first company to publish an ad in a consumer publication in 1969 to recent Evolve campaign
When did Planned Parenthood come about and what was its impact on the way people thought about condoms? (DEBBY, LYNN)
Late 1800s Comstock laws prevented women from getting contraceptive information; so women were sent unsolicited contraceptive adverts when their marriages were announced in the paper
Founded by Margaret Sanger, who won a legal battle in 1936 which ruled that contraceptive devices could no longer be classified as obscene, as designated by Comstock act
Planned Parenthood solidified the condom as a contraceptive instead of just VD prevention—tied to sex outside of marriage and instigated moral uproar
WWI and WWII:
1. What was the feeling about condoms for soldiers at the start of WWI? (SARAH, DEBBY, LYNN, JIM)
At start of WWI, US was the only military that did not promote condom use.
When and why did the military suddenly start to take steps to endorse condoms? (SARAH, DEBBY, LYNN, JIM)
VD was a huge problem for the military
During WWI, 18,000 men a day unable to serve due to infection
But mid-WWI, American military reluctantly endorsed condoms, unofficially
VISUALS: Stock (find images of soldiers in WWI)
What did this do for the image of condoms? (SARAH, DEBBY, LYNN, JIM)
Started to foster respectability and legitimacy
Of all the Allied Forces in WWI, who distributed condoms to their soldiers? Where did these condoms come from? (SARAH, DEBBY, JIM)
All armies except for the US army received condoms through official channels
Many of the condoms came from American condom manufacturers, who supplied European military with the condoms they needed
VISUALS: Condom tins; check Trojan presentation for anything relevant; Trojan 50s footage?
When and what was the VD crisis? How did it impact the public discourse about sexual health? (LYNN, DEBBY, SARAH, JIM)
VD crisis freed Americans to reclassify sex as a legitimate subject of scientific and social research and made sexual behavior a matter of public welfare
VISUALS: Trojan 1941 presentation images
What was the Chamberlain-Kahn Act of 1918? (JIM, SARAH, LYNN)
Allocated government money to fight venereal disease through educational campaigns, many of which focused on promotion of social hygiene, purity and explicit avoidance of prostitutes
Led to creation of Division of Venereal Diseases by Congress as part of U.S. Public Health Service
Legalized prescription birth control for cure and prevention of disease, leading the way for unfettered condom distribution (but contraceptive benefit not mentioned explicitly)
VISUALS: Trojan 1941 presentation images; other TBD
What was the Keeping Fit to Fight campaign? (JIM, SARAH, DEBBY, LYNN)
Educational campaign authorized and distributed by the War Dept. Commission and the American Social Hygiene Association during WWI; encouraged use of pro-kits
VISUALS: “Fit to fight” campaign poster (Museum of Sex);
VISUALS/TEXT: War Dept. pamphlet (Museum of Sex); other: “This is man to man talk, straight from the shoulder”
What was a pro kit? How and when did it develop? (JIM, SARAH, DEBBY)
Pro kit was meant to prevent VD (ointment, soap-impregnated cloth, cleaning tissue); developed around WWI
Idea was that soldiers who went on weekend furlough and had sex would clean themselves up after
“glorified soap, basically ineffective” (Sarah)
VISUALS: pro-kit images – doughboy prophylactics (Dittrick, Museum of Sex)
How did the US military’s approach to VD change from WWI to WWII? (JIM, SARAH, DEBBY, LYNN)
Stopped focusing on prevention through abstinence and post-infection treatment
Instead incorporated condoms as approved prophylactics
Pro-station—condoms sold at any hour day or night
Aggressive advertising campaign
Normalization of condoms
VISUALS: on-camera only
Where did soldiers get condoms in WWII? (SARAH, DEBBY, JIM, LYNN)
Pro-station: place where troops could purchase 3 condoms for 10 cents at any hour of the day or night
VISUAL: pro-station/pro-kit (Museum of Sex, Kinsey, Dittrick)
How would a soldier find out about the location of a pro-station? Can you talk about one example in particular? (SARAH, JIM, DEBBY)
Guides, ex: Brussels map points out locations of pro-stations alongside other attractions (dancehalls, churches)—pro-station illustrated with a little devil character
VISUALS: pro-kit guide to Brussels (Dittrick);
How were pro-kits advertised to servicemen? (SARAH, JIM, LYNN, DEBBY)
Poster campaigns; sexual education films, which ultimately evolved to contemporary school-based programming. (Don’t forget: put it on before you put it in)
VISUALS: on camera
What was the effect of this program on the US condom industry? (SARAH, JIM, LYNN, DEBBY)
Gave it such a boost that condom production doubled during 1939 and 1946
Can you talk about the VD poster campaign of WWII? (SARAH, JIM, LYNN, DEBBY)
American servicemen soon exposed to VD poster campaigns and literature
VISUALS: sexual health posters from WWII (ASHA)
VISUALS: VD awareness matchbooks (Museum of Sex)
What were the themes of these posters? What did they say? (SARAH, LYNN, JIM, DEBBY)
Relied on trope of evils of prostitution and loose women VD often personified as an attractive woman, catch phrases;
VD was “anti American” – takes soldiers away from battle; lets down troops, nation
VISUALS: sexual health posters from WWII (ASHA)
Did the booming condom industry/military endorsement of condoms lift the taboo surrounding them? Were they sold and displayed openly on the home front during/after WWII? What was the effect seen by the general public? (SARAH, JIM, LYNN, DEBBY)
No—still stigmatized; sex not mentioned; much less information about them; not sold for pleasure; sex wasn’t promoted
Even pharmacists were afraid to display them openly; cases protect modesty of women and children
VISUALS: Julius Schmid “privacy” condom pharmacy case (Museum of Sex)
VISUALS: Trojan 50s reel – condom drawer opening
Was condom use sanctioned at all by the general public at this time? For what purpose? (SARAH, JIM, LYNN, DEBBY)
In 1930s, major churches in US and Europe sanctioned use of contraception by married couples
VISUALS: on camera only
Outside of pharmacies, where could people begin to buy condoms in the 40s? When were condom dispensers introduced? What did they accomplish? (SARAH)
50s (made their way into men’s bathrooms and eventually to women’s)
Removed some of stigma surrounding their use
VISUALS: 1950s condom dispensing machine (Museum of Sex)
By the mid-50s, how many Americans used condoms for contraception? (SARAH, LYNN, DEBBY)
By 1955-65, 42% of US adults relied on condoms for contraception
VISUALS: Stock (to find) images of teens/young adults in the 50s
How and when did genital costuming come about? (DEBBY, SARAH)
Mid 20th—genital costuming
VISUALS: Novelty condoms (Dittrick)
How has condom packaging evolved from the 30s to the present? (SARAH, DEBBY, MIKE)
Over the years has been sold rolled, unrolled, in tins, sleeves, boxes, in foil, plastic
Early packaging relied on nondescript allusions to masculinity, by 1960s, hint of sexual innuendo and sexuality; some use of humor; celebrities
VISUALS: Condom tins over time (all sources)
60s to the present: Innovation
What was the impact of the sexual revolution of the 60s and 70s on condom discourse in the US? (SARAH, DEBBY, LYNN)
More open, approached with humor and pleasure
VISUALS: overt sexual condoms, humorous condoms (Museum of Sex); 80s condom ads (Trojan)
How have condoms physically evolved over the past 50 years? (SARAH, DEBBY, MIKE)
Started as washable latex, evolved to molded, bulbous end, etc.
Condoms companies have invested time and money on making condoms abuot protection AND pleasure through innovation
So much has changed
VISUALS: Condom factory VHS 70s to Condom factory footage (recent)
How has society changed the way it talks about condoms? (SARAH, LYNN, MIKE)
From discomfort to increasing comfort and cultural openness
Condoms are now a part of a whole package of sexual life
Pop culture phenomena like Sex and the City and Fifty Shades of Grey have paved the way for open discourse about sex and pleasure
VISUALS: on camera + TBD condom packages (all sources)
How has cultural openness impacted the condom industry? (SARAH, MIKE)
More concern with consumer choice, pleasure
innovating for pleasure
VISUALS: current Trojan condom packages
How has condom advertising evolved since the early 20th century? (SARAH, LYNN, DEBBY, MIKE)
More closed off, less sexual to more highly sexual
Germ theory at beginning of 20th century meant medical route was possible in terms of talking about condoms (protection, security, safety)
VISUALS: Transition from old, 50s ad to contemporary marketing
What was the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on the condom industry? (SARAH, LYNN, DEBBY, MIKE)
1988, US Surgeon General encouraged condom use
Changed entire landscape of sexual education
Condoms went from contraceptive solution to savior of mankind
VISUALS: Condom ads (dramatic/HIV influence) from 80s – (Trojan)
Why is the condom unique in terms of its position in society? (MIKE)
Both a medical device and a consumer product
Highly regulated but also based on a matrix of consumer choice
VISUALS: on-camera only
What does the present-day condom consumer want? (MIKE, DEBBY)
Choice, pleasure, protection
A brand they trust
VISUALS: current Trojan condom packages
How much innovation is happening in the area of condom development? Where are condoms going? What are the possibilities? (MIKE, DEBBY)
Thin; Synthetic, non-latex; pleasure;
New material, textiles, textures and lubricants
VISUALS: factory tour footage
What does it take to get a new condom on the market? How are new ideas born? (MIKE)
Doodle on a piece of paper? Then see what’s possible
Complex process, 18 months, R&D, extensive testing
Look for white space and try to find areas you can innovate
VISUALS: factory tour footage
Tell me about the process of making a latex condom. How has that process evolved over the past 50 years? What is it like today (brief overview)? (MIKE)
VISUALS: factory tour footage
So you have found the right partner and you two have decided to have sex. You’ve got some mood music, sexy lighting and, of course, condoms. You probably think you know everything about those!
So it seems like you’re both ready to go! ...well, almost.
Did you know that condoms are your only contraceptive option that can help prevent both unintended pregnancy and STIs—
and are 98% effective when used consistently and correctly?
So let’s make sure you know how to use that condom the right way.
Condoms are easy to use but mistakes are sometimes made, so let’s review some of the mistakes and learn how to prevent them.
The most basic mistake you can make is of course, not using a condom at all.
Always use a condom during sex.
When opening a condom, use your fingers to tear the wrapper.
Never use a sharp object to open a condom. Condom wrappers can be easily opened with the fingers. Do not use teeth, scissors or anything that can damage the condom.
When putting on your condom, make sure it isn’t on inside out.
To put a condom on, place it on the head of the erect penis, making sure the rolled-up ring is on the outside and the tip is up. Squeeze the tip gently and hold it while you unroll the condom all the way to the base of the erect penis.
If the condom doesn’t unroll, it may be on backwards, damaged or too old. Throw it away and start over with a new condom.
A condom works best during sex when you’re actually wearing it. So put it on before you start and keep it on the entire time.
Keep your condom on until you ejaculate. Immediately after ejaculation, hold the condom in place and withdraw the penis while it is still erect. Dispose of the used condom by wrapping it in tissue and throwing it in the trash. Make sure to wash up after you’re done!
Now, condoms are strong and durable, but there are some common sense things you just shouldn’t do to them.
Make sure your condoms don’t get exposed to heat or related damage – so keep them in a cool, dry place, like a drawer.
Condoms have an expiration date, usually 3 to 5 years from the date of manufacture.
Always check the package to make sure your condom has not passed the expiration date.
There are many kinds of condoms you can choose from—some have unique shapes, ribbing, nubs – all designed to enhance the experience.
The majority of these condoms are lubricated
and some have lubes designed to heighten the experience. However, you may choose to add your own lube. If you do – never use an oil-based lubricant.
If using additional lubricant, use one that is water or silicone-based.
Now you know how to use a condom the right way, and that they’re easy to use, they work and can even add to the experience.
Using condoms consistently and correctly is the best protection against both unintended pregnancy and STIs— so use one every time!
Using condoms consistently and correctly provides protection against both unintended pregnancy and STIs - so use one every time!